Note: A glossary of technical terms used in these columns can be found on the Web sites of the authors. In addition, a listing of earlier articles and/or columns in this series can be found on, and The glossary was recently updated.

In our last column, we began to discuss proactive updates to closed episodes. In earlier columns, we used a diagram to illustrate the mapping of a single original update transaction to the multiple temporal transactions that physically carry it out. But the mapping diagram in the previous column was a little different than the diagram used up to that point. The main difference is that we have generalized the diagram so it represents update mappings that the original diagram did not.

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