The ability to categorize IT programs and assign them appropriate tactics, skills and resources is vital to generating positive outcomes, according to research firm Gartner inc. Programs that aren’t properly categorized are much more likely to be over budget, fall short of one or more intended goals, or even fail completely.

Gartner has identified five types of programs to help managers categorize their programs and plan accordingly: Bottom-up (multiple projects that are recognized as part of a larger set of problems and as sharing dependencies); change-oriented (generally triggered by a high-level need for major change); policy-driven (unique to government and public service sectors, they typically enable provision of a law, regulation or defined service); outcome-driven (pushed by a concept of a product, service or generally identified set of results); transformational (an effort that transcends the organization's current vision and its recent history and direction.)

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