This article is featured in the 2000 Resource Guide, a supplement to the December issue of DM Review.

For those readers who have heard me talk about the subject of Enterprise Architecture, you will probably remember the frog. I have a lot of years of my professional life invested in architecture and related subjects! These are not new ideas. However, historically, as most information professionals would also recognize, in spite of the overwhelming logic of architectural concepts, those of us who care about these issues have not exactly been doing a "land office business" putting these ideas into practice.

I can think of four reasons why the reality of the deplorable lack of architecture defies the logic of architecture itself – the information age enterprise imperative.


First, architecture is countercultural. For the first 50 years of experience in the discipline of information systems, it has been challenging enough to simply get the systems to run. Our whole focus has been on producing running code. In fact, all of the typical performance measures are directed to that end including lines of code, function points, up time, down time, response time, mean time, expenses, budget, etc., etc. Whatever you measure, that is what you get – running code.

Although we pay verbal homage to standards, reuse, interchangeable parts, integration, design for change, administering change, alignment, assets, investments, and so on, the practical fact is we are not doing any of them. Our deficiency in this regard is complicated by the fact that the accountants, I believe, are really not that adept at putting values on things that are going to be used more than one time, with the possible exception of used cars. There is not a ready secondary market to help put residual values on bridges, roads, armies, aircraft carriers, information, models, repositories, architecture, business rules or many assets in general. The problem with many of these kinds of assets is that when you need them for survival, you might not have them unless someone has had sufficient foresight to acquire them beforehand – whether they can be "cost-justified" in a classic IT manner or not.

Thus, architecture is countercultural. We don't know how to measure it, so we are not getting it. No one yet sees acquiring it as a sufficiently critical survival issue. This brings me to the second reason we don't have Enterprise Architecture in place.


The enterprise has not associated Enterprise Architecture with survival. Making money during the industrial age has been relatively easy. This is clearly a gross over- simplification; but, basically, what was needed in the industrial age was a good product and somebody to sell it. The marketplace was big enough to absorb whatever products or services could be produced. You could spill more than you made and still make a profit. The advent of the computer contributed immensely by removing labor constraints. An enterprise could reduce costs and lower prices by replacing labor with technology. There was a great deal of room for productivity improvements through the use of automation.

As the industrial age has matured, the marketplace has become saturated. Products have become commoditized. It is pretty hard to tell the difference between Southern California Edison's electricity and Cleen 'n Green's electricity. You can shop for Guess Jeans in Johannesburg or in Los Angeles. Benneton Colors stores look the same in Stockholm as they do in Freeport, Maine. The concept of a local market is now defunct. The game has changed. Competition is global and intense. The "system" no longer is a productivity aid. The "system" is the price of entry into the game. You cannot even play in the game without extensive automation. The systems are no longer discretionary support to the enterprise. They are mandatory. Systems have replaced the people of the enterprise and are doing the work of the enterprise. In fact, many of the folks that have been in my seminars or at my presentations have heard me say time and again, "The systems are the enterprise."

In any case, the second reason for lack of architecture is the enterprise has not yet discovered that the design of the system is the design of the enterprise; and if the system can't change, the enterprise can't change! However, be that as it may, architecture still is not perceived by the enterprise to be a survival issue.

Know How

The third reason we don't see a lot of architecture in reality is that we simply haven't known how to do architecture. We owe Tom DeMarco1 a huge debt of gratitude for teaching us how to describe the functional aspects of Enterprise Architecture, certainly at Rows 3 and 4 of the Zachman Framework.2 In fact, we know how to design those cells, and I might add that the laws of coupling and cohesion are still as valid today as they ever were. Actually, Mike Hammer and Jim Champy3 have more recently brought Row 2 of the process column into focus with the concentration on business process reengineering.

Peter Chen4 and Bob Brown,5 Clive Finkelstein6 and Charlie Bachman7 have taught us how to describe and how to design the Column 1 models, the data models. And, the laws of semantic integrity have not gone away any more than coupling and cohesion have gone away.

But, beyond process and data, the state of the art has been a little thin. We don't know a lot about describing or designing the Column 3 models (the distribution models, the technology architecture, the "infrastructure," the hardware/systems software models, etc.).

We are also a little thin in the area of work flow, presentation architecture, etc., the Column 4 models. Peter Drucker8 has made major contributions in organizational concepts in Row 2 of Column 4; but below that, there is a lot to be learned.

In Column 5, the time column, Peter Senge9 has made major contributions with the systems dynamics models, but we have not explicitly tied these to the "systems" Row 3 and below of Column 5.

Ron Ross10 and Gladys Lam are making major progress in putting definition around business rules and their relationship to the objectives and strategies of the enterprise which are made manifest in the Row 2 models of Column 6 (the motivation column); but there are still limitations to our understanding, and the work is certainly not yet universally accepted.

There is still a lot to learn about Enterprise Architecture. We have clearly not known how to do it all, and there are still some gaping holes in our understanding. But, worst of all, even though we know quite a bit, we still are not practicing it. Our cultural mentality (as reflected in the discussion of reason number one) still tends to be, "You start writing the code, and I will find out what the users have in mind – forget architecture!"

This brings me to the fourth and last reason why architectural concepts are not prevalent in the practice of the enterprise.

Holy Grail

Architecture requires actual work. We keep looking for the "quick fix," a technological solution, a tool, a package, a new processor, the perennial "silver bullet." We wish we could simply throw money at the problem and have the pain go away.

This is simply not realistic. We have been looking for the "Holy Grail" of technology solutions to enterprise problems for forty years and are no closer today than when we first started. In fact, I might argue, we are even farther away.

At the point in time when the enterprise recognizes that the computer is not simply a productivity enhancement tool and that the "system" is the enterprise, the "owner," "designer" and "builder"11 will have to sit together, have a meeting of the minds and decide what the enterprise is, is to be, how to "architect" it in that context, how to transform that architecture into reality – to "construct" it (the enterprise) according to the architectural specifications – and then, maybe the key to the future – establish the enterprise process for changing the enterprise.

You probably wouldn't be able to do this without technology to aid in its creation, specification and construction as well as to be integral with its ongoing operation and change; however, technology, in and of itself, is not going to do any of this automatically. It will require actual collaborative work on the part of the owner, designer and builder. Further, it will require time. Enterprises are simply too complex to expect simplistic solutions.

We send engineers to college for four years and on to graduate school for several more to basically learn the standard conventions for describing complex physical objects such as buildings and airplanes, etc. Then, there is a decade or two of apprenticeship to gain experience before they are certified to carry the responsibilities for actually designing complex things. In contrast, we send people to three days of COBOL programming school or three days of data modeling school and expect them to be a competent COBOL programmer or a competent data modeler. These are the people we typically expect, with little more training or apprenticeship, to architect and construct our enterprises (that is, "systems," remembering "the systems are the enterprise") which are orders of magnitude more complex than airplanes or buildings.

In summary, the four reasons that Enterprise Architecture historically has not been a vital part of the enterprise agenda are:

  1. Architecture is countercultural.
  2. It is not perceived to be an enterprise survival issue.
  3. We don't know how to actually do all of it.
  4. It takes time and actual work.

Architectural Revolution

Looking toward the future, there are four reasons why an architectural revolution is imminent for every enterprise that intends to be a player in the information age.

New Culture

First, the game has changed. We are no longer playing an industrial age game. We are playing an information age game. No longer is all the information (and therefore all the power) concentrated in a very few people at the very top of an enterprise. Now everybody has access to the same information at the same time. A "power shift"12 has taken place. The power shifts outward within the enterprise – even beyond the enterprise as the customers have access to the same information as the enterprise. No longer is the enterprise challenge simply to produce a product (or service) and then look for customers to sell it to. Now the challenge is to find a good customer and produce and integrate whatever products are necessary to meet that customer's requirements in order to keep them a good customer. This adds orders of magnitude of complexity to the enterprise as the burden of integration now falls on the enterprise, not on the customer. No longer is it possible to remember how the enterprise works without formal conventions and mechanisms for describing and retaining knowledge about it.

At the same time, the rate of change is escalating. "Knowledge is change and the ever-increasing body of knowledge feeding the 'great engine of technology' is creating ever-increasing change."13 Without architectural representations that describe the enterprise as it exists at a given point in time, there is no way to understand what can be changed, to understand the impact of potential changes or to actually change the enterprise, short of starting with a blank sheet of paper and attempting to redesign it from scratch every time you want to change.

Complexity and high rates of change are the challenge of the information age enterprise, and neither can be accommodated without Enterprise Architecture.


Second, architecture is a survival issue because of complexity and high rates of change, and many enterprises are failing for lack of it. I would suggest that there are organizations that have lost their dominant market position even though they wanted to change. Since there was no architecture, they couldn't change the systems. They couldn't change the enterprise because they didn't have an understanding of what and how to change. Basically, they ran out of time.

Virtually every enterprise is confronted by the very same challenges. In fact, I have confidence that it won't be long before the academic community, through their research and development of case studies for instructional purposes, will validate the relationship between the lack of architecture and the inability to deal with complexity and high rates of change.

Peter Drucker makes a strong case in The Next Information Revolution14 that the revolution is well underway. It is not a revolution in technology, machinery, techniques, software or speed. It is a revolution in concepts. I would argue that the revolutionary concept is architecture. No longer is it adequate to simply get the system to run. Now, we must see the enterprise holistically as the implementation itself so it can be dynamically reshaped and redefined as the environmental change and complexity escalate.

Architecture Breakthrough

Third, we are rapidly filling in gaping holes in the understanding of how to actually do architecture. In the last year, I have received two recently written books that make major contributions to the architecture body of knowledge. Bernard H. Boar, recently retired from AT&T, sent me a manuscript of his book, Constructing Blueprints for Enterprise IT Architectures.15 In this book, Boar is proposing a formal architectural notation (Row 3) for application function and technology distribution (Column 2 and Column 3). I would observe that this is a breakthrough. It is equivalent to DeMarco's 1978 publication1 on structured analysis (Column 2, Row 3) or Chen's 1977 publication4 on logical data models (Column 1, Row 3) in that it is the first attempt, at least that I have seen, to establish a standard notation for describing the technology environment.

The second book I received is entitled, High Performance Client Server: A Guide to Building and Managing Robust Distributed Systems16 by Chris Loosley and Frank Douglas. This book is also a major breakthrough in the nature of the early books on coupling and cohesion and semantic integrity. Loosley and Douglas describe how to decide where to put the data (Column 1), where to put the process (Column 2) and where to put the presentation (Column 4) in relation to the location (Column 3). Further, Loosley and Douglas argue that these decisions must be made at Row 2, not at Row 4 or Row 5.

Ron Ross and Gladys Lam are presently blazing new trails in describing and designing business rules (Column 6, Rows 2 and 3) in the Data To Knowledge Newsletter.17 Ross has written the definitive book on business rules (Column 6, Row 3), The Business Rule Book: Classifying, Defining and Modeling Rules.10 In fact, the Business Rules Group, of which Ross and I are a part, is on the verge of publishing the meta-model for Column 6, Row 2. (See Rules/. Please note the case in the "businessRules" portion of the Web address.)

Tom Bruce wrote the seminal book on Column 1, data models, Designing Quality Databases with IDEF1X Information Models.18

Melissa Cook wrote, Building Enterprise Information Architectures,19 and Steve Spewak wrote Enterprise Architecture Planning,20 both of which address Columns 1, 2 and 3, Rows 1 and at least a high level of Row 2.

The only places where we still are thin on theory are in work flow (Column 4), dynamics (Column 5) in Rows 3 and below, and motivation (Column 6) Row 4 and below. I suspect that even these issues are well known and thoroughly documented in disciplines other than the information discipline.

There are few breakthroughs left to be made. However, I would argue that in essence, we know how to do Enterprise Architecture.

Productivity Tools

Fourth and last, the tools for supporting Enterprise Architecture are rapidly improving and removing all the remaining obstacles to doing actual architecture work. The tools will never be a substitute for the intellectual work of producing architecture, but they are reducing the time it takes to produce architectures by making the process more productive.

In the last year, I have seen substantive tool activity that is directly deriving from or in support of the Framework, including:

A. A new release of Structure from Framework Software, Inc. which is an artifact classification and access tool.

B. Framework from PTECH which is a graphic enterprise modeling tool that has grown out of the process modeling discipline of the pre-IDEF0 days.

C. METIS, an enterprise modeling tool out of Norway that has been acquired by NCR and used in support of their consulting practice.

D. Design Bank from Metadata Management Corp. which is a repository built to Framework specifications and which has evolved from Infospan origins.

E. System Architect 2001, a CASE tool from Popkin Software, which has evolved from their mature set of modeling tools.

F. Visible Advantage, a CASE tool from Visible Systems whose lineage goes back to Clive Finkelstein's USER: Expert Systems.

G. Architect, from ZTI, which is a repository that can be traced back to Atkinson Tremblay's Assyst Developer.

H. RuleTrack, a business rules analysis and planning tool from Framework Software that was designed in support of Business Rule Solutions' (Ron Ross/Gladys Lam) business rule methodology.

I am sure that I am not doing these tools justice with such a brief characterization, but what is impressive in every case is the fact that these are not just "Johnny-come-lately silver bullet" candidates. In every case, they can be traced back to substantive, in-depth, theoretical foundations and maturity over decades of experience. Also in each case, the presently available product has been recently rebuilt with current technology and/or reengineered specifically to accommodate Enterprise Architecture principles. In the words of a friend of mine from many years ago, Steve McMinamin, "The second time you design something, it is always better!" All of these tools have many iterations of maturity.

Also, I am sure there are many other tools that are available and many other books that have been written. Life is too short. I am simply unable to see every tool or read every book. I don't even know all the books and tools specifically discussing or supporting my own Framework. The principal point to be observed is that there is no longer any major obstacle, theoretical or technical, for doing Enterprise Architecture. The only thing remaining to be done is the actual work of architecture.

In summary, there are four reasons why the Enterprise Architecture revolution will occur quickly:

  1. Architecture is the information age culture (and we are, like it or not, in the information age).
  2. Architecture is an enterprise survival issue.
  3. There are few theoretical breakthroughs left to be made.
  4. There are no technical obstacles for doing architecture work.

Truly, Enterprise Architecture is the issue of the 21st century. The playing field is fairly level at the moment, but the enterprise that acquires the capability to deal with complexity and to accommodate high rates of change is going to be very difficult to compete with as we progress into maturity in the information age. Enterprise Architecture will quickly become the admission price to play in the information age game.

1 DeMarco, T. Structured Analysis and System Specification. New York. Yourdon Press, 1978.

2 Sowa, J. and Zachman, J. Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture. IBM Systems Journal. Vol. 31, no. 3. Armonk, NY, 1992.

3 Hammer, M., Champy, J. Reengineering the Corporation. New York. Harper Business, 1993.

4 Chen, P.P. The Entity Relationship Model - Toward a Unified View of Data. ACM Transactions on Database Systems. Vol. 1 No. 1. March 1976.

5 Brown, R.G., and the Data Base Design Group. Logical Database Design Techniques. Mountain View, CA. Data Base Design Group, 1984.

6 Martin, J. and Finkelstein, C. Information Engineering. London. Savant, 1981.

7 Bachman, C. Data Structure Diagrams. Communications of the ACM. SIGBDP Database. Vol. 1, No. 2. 1969.

8 Drucker, P. F. The Practice of Management. New York. Harper & Row, 1954.

9 Senge, P.M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York. Doubleday, 1990.

10 Ross, R.G. The Business Rules Book: Classifying, Defining and Modeling Rules. Boston. Database Newsletter, 1997.

11 Zachman, John A. A Framework of Information Systems Architecture. IBM Systems Journal. Vol. 26, No. 3. Armonk, N.Y., 1987.

12 Toffler, A. Powershift. New York. Bantam, 1990.

13 Toffler, A. Future Shock. New York. Bantam, 1970.

14 Drucker, Peter F. The Next Information Revolution. Forbes ASAP, August 24, 1998.

15 Boar, Bernard H. Constructing Blueprints for Enterprise IT Architectures. Wiley, 1998.

16 Looseley, Chris and Douglas, Frank. High Performance Client Server: A Guide to Building and Managing Robust Distributed Systems. Wiley, 1998.

17 Ross, Ronald G., Lam, Gladys S.W. Data To Knowledge Newsletter (formerly published as the Data Base Newsletter). Business Rule Solutions, Inc., since 1973.

18 Bruce, Thomas A. Designing Quality Databases with IDEF1X Information Models. Dorset House, 1992.

19 Cook, Melissa. Building Enterprise Information Architectures. Prentice Hall, 1996.

20 Spewak, Steven H. Enterprise Architecture Planning. QED, 1993.

Note: For an extensive bibliography that supports Enterprise Architecture see the Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement (ZIFA) Web site,

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