Information Management's Glossary


Immediate processing
Processing that occurs at the time the request for processing is made. Data may be requested and updated in an immediate mode.

Impact analysis
Identifying the impact of change on an object to its related objects.

Advertising has begun to be sold on Web sites all over the Web. It comes in the form of a banner which sits on the Web page much like an advertising banner is displayed at sporting arenas and stadiums. The spaces are usually sold in blocks of thousands of impressions. In this case, an impression is exactly the same as a hit. After purchasing an amount of impressions for your banner, you can be guaranteed that many people have hit the page containing an advertisement.

In-store display
A showcase of goods inside department or variety stores to encourage foot traffic and generate more sales.

Data warehouse implementation can be broken down into segments or increments. An increment is a defined data warehouse implementation project that has a specified beginning and end. An increment may also be referred to as a departmental data warehouse within the context of an enterprise.

Data that has been processed in such a way that it can increase the knowledge of the person who receives it. Information is the output, or finished goods, of information systems. Information is also what individuals start with before it is fed into a data capture transaction processing system.

Information consumer
A person or software service that uses data to create information.

Information infrastructur
Information infrastructure is a shared, evolving, open, standardized and heterogeneous installed base.

Information needs analysis
The identification and analysis of the needs for information required to satisfy a particular business driver.

Information system
An organized collection, processing, transmission and dissemination of information in accordance with defined procedures, whether automated or manual. Information systems are used to support high-level business decision making (typically ETL and BI systems involving a data warehouse).

Information systems architecture
The authoritative definition of the business rules, systems structure, technical framework and product backbone for business information systems. An information systems architecture consists of four layers: business architecture, systems architecture, technical architecture and product architecture.

Information warehouse
IBM's approach to data warehousing that supports the implementation of either functional, central or decentralized warehouses.

Informational database
A database containing data items (pieces of information) that may be summarized or aggregated from the lowest level of data elements. The aggregation is directed by business rules or algorithms.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
ISDN is an international communications standard for sending voice, video and data over digital telephone lines. ISDN requires special metal wires and supports transfer rates of 64 Kbps. Most ISDN lines offered by telephone companies give you two lines at once, called B channels. You can use one line for voice and the other for data, or you can use both lines for data to give you data rates of 128 Kbps, four or five times the data rate provided by today's modems.

Intelligent agent
A software routine that waits in the background and performs an action when a specified event occurs. For example, agents could transmit a summary file on the first day of the month or monitor incoming data and alert the user when certain transactions have arrived.

Interface definition language (IDL)
Interface definition language is the standard API for calling CORBA services.

This 20-letter word is often abbreviated as i18n when used by software engineers. Making a program useful in another country requires more than just replacing error messages from a new language. In software development, internationalization means designing a program so that it can be easily customized for various languages, scripts, units, currencies and date/time formats. The counterpart of i18n is localization (l10n), which is adapting a program for use in a particular locale. In other words, internationalization makes a piece of software easy to localize.

The ability of various types of computers and programs to work together.

A procedure to obtain prioritized information needed to generate warehouse increments.

The subset of the Internet used internally by a company or organization. Unlike the Internet, intranets are private and accessible only from within the organization.

Inverted file indexes
A more efficient method to access data in an ad-hoc or analysis environment. It maintains indexes to all values contained in an indexed field. Those values, in turn, can be used in any combination to identify records that contain them, without actually scanning them from disk.

information technology

IT portfolio management
IT portfolio management is the formal process for managing IT assets such as software, hardware, middleware, an IT project, internal staff, an application or external consulting.

IT utility
An IT utility links servers, clients and storage from across a local environment, the Internet and/or a WAN to form virtual server, network and storage pools which may be dynamically allocated, provisioned and monitored to an application based upon business-driven policies and service levels.