C

Information Management's Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


C-Commerce (collaborative-commerce)
A business strategy that motivates value-chain partners with a common business interest to generate value through sharing information at all phases of the business cycle (from product development to distribution).


C2B
The financial interaction, initiated by a consumer, between a consumer and business.


Cache
Pronounced "cash." The storage of recently visited sites and data which can be accessed from computer memory instead of linking the server each time you return to the site. This speeds the access time, but does not reflect any changes to the site while in the cache. On rapidly changing sites you may need to click the reload button in order to read the most recent changes.


Call Center
The part of an organization that handles inbound/outbound communications with customers.


Campaign Management
Detailed tracking, reporting and analysis that provides precise measurements regarding current marketing campaigns, how they are performing and the types of leads they attract.


Cartesian Product
A Cartesian join will get you a Cartesian product. A Cartesian join is when you join every row of one table to every row of another table. You can also get one by joining every row of a table to every row of itself.


Cascading style sheet (CSS)
Cascading style sheets is a style sheet language that enables authors and users to attach style (fonts, spacing and aural cues) to structure that include HTML and XML applications.


CASE
Computer Aided Software Engineering.


CASE Management
The management of information between multiple CASE encyclopedias," whether the same or different CASE tools.


Catalog
A component of a data dictionary that contains a directory of its DBMS objects as well as attributes of each object.


Cell
Data point defined by one member of each dimension of a multidimensional structure. Often, potential cells in multidimensional structures are empty, leading to 'sparse' storage.


Central Warehouse
A database created from operational extracts that adheres to a single, consistent, enterprise data model to ensure consistency of decision-support data across the corporation. A style of computing where all the information systems are located and managed from a single physical location.


Change data capture
The process of capturing changes made to a production data source. Change data capture is typically performed by reading the source DBMS log. It consolidates units of work, ensures data is synchronized with the original source, and reduces data volume in a data warehousing environment.


Churn
Describes customer attrition. A high churn rate implies high customer disloyalty.


Classic data warehouse development
The process of building an enterprise business model, creating a system data model, defining and designing a data warehouse architecture, constructing the physical database, and lastly populating the warehouses database.


Click and Mortar
A business that has successfully integrated its online existence with its offline, real-world existence. For example, a retail store that allows customers to order products online or purchase products at its store location.


Clickthrough
The percentage of advertisements or other content a user clicks on or chooses to view.


Client
A software program used to contact and obtain data from a server software program on another computer. Each client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of server programs, and each server requires a specific kid of client.


Client/server
A distributed technology approach where the processing is divided by function. The server performs shared functions -- managing communications, providing database services, etc. The client performs individual user functions -- providing customized interfaces, performing screen to screen navigation, offering help functions, etc.


Client/server architecture
A networked environment where a smaller system such as a PC interacts with a larger, faster system. This allows the processing to be performed on the larger system which frees the user's PC. The larger system is able to connect and disconnect from the clients in order to more efficiently process the data.


Client/server processing
A form of cooperative processing in which the end-user interaction is through a programmable workstation (desktop) that must execute some part of the application logic over and above display formatting and terminal emulation.


Clustering
Clustering is a process of partitioning a set of data into subsets or clusters such that a data element belonging to a cluster is more similar to data elements belonging to the same cluster than the data elements belonging to other clusters.


Collection
A set of data that resulted from a DBMS query


Collective intelligence
Collective intelligence is an approach to producing intellectual content such as code, documents, indexing and decisions that results from individuals working together with no centralized authority. It enables new ways of doing business across industries.


COM+
Provides an enterprise development environment, based on the Microsoft component object model (COM), for creating component-based, distributed applications.


Common object model (COM)
Common object model is an object-based programming specification, designed to provide object interoperability through sets of predefined routines called interfaces.


Common object request broker Architecture (CORBA)
Common object request broker architecture is the Object Management Group (OMG) vendor-independent architecture and infrastructure, which computer applications use to work together over networks.


Communications integrit
An operational quality that ensures transmitted data has been accurately received at its destination.


Complex event processing
Complex event processing (CEP) is an emerging technology for building and managing information systems. The goal of CEP is to enable the information contained in the events flowing through all of the layers of the enterprise IT infrastructure to be discovered, understood in terms of its impact on high level management goals and business processes and acted upon in real time. This includes events created by new technologies such as RFID. CEP is a technology for detecting patterns in underlying events in real time in order to identify or infer higher-level events.


Consolidation
The process that takes data from different systems and entities, and possibly disparate formats, and combines and aggregates that information to create a unified view.*


Consumer
An individual, group or application that accesses data/information in a data warehouse.


Consumer profile
Identification of an individual, group or application and a profile of the data they request and use: the kinds of warehouse data, physical relational tables needed, and the required location and frequency of the data (when, where, and in what form it is to be delivered).


Content Management
The processes and workflows involved in organizing, categorizing, and structuring information resources so that they can be stored, published, and reused in multiple ways. A content management system (CMS) is used to collect, manage and publish content, storing the content either as components or whole documents, while maintaining the links between components. It may also provides for content revision control.


Continuous availability
A protocol, associated execution and ready state of functionality that virtually guarantees computing-system operational continuity in any downtime event. Continuous availability concerns itself with 1) the recovery of applications, data and data transactions committed up to the moment of system loss; and 2) seamless, 24x7 system availability that offsets any planned or unplanned downtime event.


Control data
Data that guides a process. For example, indicators, flags, counters and parameters.


Cookies
A cookie is an identifier which a Web application may use to associate a present visitor with their previous record with that company.


Cooperative processing
A style of computer application processing in which the presentation, business logic, and data management are split among two or more software services that operate on one or more computers. In cooperative processing, individual software programs (services) perform specific functions that are invoked by means of parameterized messages exchanged between them.


Copy Management
The analysis of the business benefit realized by the cost of expenditure on some resource, tool, or application development.


Corporate governance
Corporate governance is a wide framework of systems, rules, interfaces and principles that form the basis of fiduciary corporate culture and values.


Corporate performance management
An umbrella term used to describe the methodologies, metrics, processes and systems used to monitor and manage the business performance of an enterprise.


Corporate semantic Web
Corporate semantic Web applies semantic Web technologies, a.k.a. semantic markup languages (for example, Resource Description Framework, Web Ontology Language and topic maps) to corporate Web content.


Cost benefit analysis
The analysis of the business benefit realized by the cost of expenditure on some resource, tool, or application development.


Critical success factors
Key areas of activity in which favorable results are necessary for a company to reach its goal.


CRM
customer relationship management


Crosstab
A process or function that combines and/or summarizes data from one or more sources into a concise format for analysis or reporting.


Crow's foot notation
Crow's foot notation is a type of cardinality notation used in data modeling. In crow's foot notation, a single bar indicates one, a double bar indicates one and only one (for example, a single instance of a product can only be stored in one warehouse), a circle indicates zero and a crow's foot indicates many.


Cube
A data cube is a multidimensional structure that contains an aggregate value at each point, i.e., the result of applying an aggregate function to an underlying relation. Data cubes are used to implement online analytical processing (OLAP).


Currency date
The date the data is considered effective. It is also known as the "as of" date or temporal currency.


Customer Advocacy
Customer advocacy is the perception that an organization does what is best for its customers, not just what is best for its own bottom line.


Customer data integration (CDI)
Customer data integration (CDI) is comprised of process and technology solutions for recognizing a customer at any touchpoint - while aggregating accurate, up-to-date knowledge about that customer and delivering it in an actionable form "just in time" to touchpoints.


Customer relationship management (CRM)
The idea of establishing relationships with customers on an individual basis, then using that information to treat different customers differently. Customer buying profiles and churn analysis are examples of decision support activities that can affect the success of customer relationships.


Cybermarketing
This term refers to any type of Internet-based promotion. This includes Web sites, targeted email, Internet bulletin boards, sites where customers can dial-in and download files, and sites that engage in internet commerce by offering products for sell over the Internet. The term doesn't have a strict meaning, though, and many marketing managers use it to cover any computer-based marketing tools.